Although some of this information was newly published, much of the science I disocvered had existed prior to my medical training in the 1990s.
The risk factors I found for type 1 diabetes and for asthma came from solid, well-respected science that remains virtually unrecognized in medical care and outside of research studies.
The research ips about how a mother’s experiences during pregnancy, birth and in the first years of her child’s life shape her infant’s perceptions of safety – and perceptions of threat. And how they affect her as well as her baby’s long-term health.
Table of Contents
- 1 Summary of Posts 1 & 2: Risk Factors For Asthma and Type 1 Diabetes
- 2 Maternal Behaviors Affect Genes
- 3 Life Events Influence Genes & Health
- 4 The Effects of Experience Can Last a Lifetime
- 5 Maternal Experiences Affect Generations
- 6 Genes Are Affected During Sensitive Periods
- 7 The Sensitive Period After Birth
- 8 Supporting Moms: Supporting Generations
- 9 Conclusions
- 10 What You Can Do
- 11 What About You? Does This Make Sense of Your Illness?
- 12 Let Me Know In a Comment
These experiences occur outside of parents’ control. It’s about removing blame and offering new tools that may help improve or even cure asthma in children and that may very well help adults as well (as it did for me).
Understanding risk factors for asthma also sheds light on what appear to be common risk factors for chronic illness of all kinds.
This is because research is beginning to show us how life events affect our health.
Contrary to popular belief, it’s not psychological
It’s because life experiences affect our genes.
Summary of Posts 1 & 2: Risk Factors For Asthma and Type 1 Diabetes
The first post in the causes of chronic illness series describes Swedish researcher Gisela Dahlquist’s finding that risk for type 1 diabetes increases when babies are separated from their mothers after birth.
The second post shows you how psychologist Tony Madrid accidentally discovered that maternal-infant separation interferes with bonding and is one of the important risk factors for asthma. His studies further identified that risk
- for separation was triggered by difficult experiences such as pregnancy and birth complications,
- was the same whether separation was physical or emotional,
- resulted from events that were outside of a mother’s control,
- occurred because it interrupted mothers’ capacities to bond with and nurture their babies.
In learning about his research I realized that own my mother had experienced some of the types of difficult events he referred to and wondered if they had affected my own risk for asthma. It was interesting to consider that they might have also shaped my risk for chronic fatigue.
Tony treated these mothers for the sense of loss, grief or other often painful feelings that were frequent results of physical and emotional separation from their babies in early life. He also addressed the difficulties they often experienced with their children for years after these events. Most of these asthmatic kids healed completely with this approach (1)Madrid, A. (2010). The Mother and Child Reunion: Repairing the broken bond. Monte Rio, Lulu Press.
I long wondered how treating an asthmatic kid’s mother could lead to recovery from a chronic illness in her child. That’s what today’s post addresses.
A 2004 ground-breaking study offered an explanation.
Maternal Behaviors Affect Genes
Michael Meaney is a behavioural epigeneticist and neurobiologist at McGill University in Montreal, Quebec. He and his colleague Moshe Szyf, a molecular biologist and geneticist, published a widely cited study in 2004 showing that maternal behaviors in rats influence epigenetics in their pups (2)Weaver, I. C., et al. (2004). “Epigenetic programming by maternal behavior.” Nat Neurosci 7(8): 847-854.
Epigenetics is the emerging science finding that genes don’t operate on their own as we’ve so long believed.
Genetic expression is guided by the presence of small chemicals that bind to them (here’s an introductory blog post on epigenetics). These molecules increase, decrease or otherwise change the behaviors of genes and the proteins they produce. They guide gene expression through normal development in pregnancy and childhood, such as telling which cells to grow into heart cells or brain cells, among many other functions. These molecules also affect nervous system regulation such as through the HPA axis (hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal), which regulates responses to stress and physiological processes such as blood pressure, breathing, temperature and more.
Epigenetics is nature’s built-in mechanism that enables each individual to adapt and respond to his or her unique environment, including the environment of experience.
More nurtured pups are less sensitive to stress
Meaney’s group found that rat pups raised by nurturing dams, who use more licking, grooming and arching behaviors (arching their backs exposes their bellies and makes it easier for pups to nurse), differed from pups raised by rat mothers that licked, groomed and arched less.
The more highly nurtured pups were less reactive to stress.
They discovered that the calmer pups had epigenetic changes in genes that regulate cortisol and stress responses. Their genes had different amounts of epigenetic attachments compared with pups raised by less nurturing dams.
Maternal behavior affects safety & perceptions of threat
Meaney and Szyf’s studies revealed that a mother’s behaviors influence her offpsring’s sense of safety and perceptions of threat.
Through … epigenetic processes, maternal effects influence the development of defensive responses to threat in organisms ranging from plants to mammals.
In the rat, such effects are mediated by variations in maternal behavior, which serve as the basis for the transmission of individual differences in stress responses from mother to offspring (3)Weaver, I. C., et al. (2004). “Epigenetic programming by maternal behavior.” Nat Neurosci 7(8): 847-854, p. 847.
This offered a vastly different context and interconnected perspective regarding the role of early life events as risk factors for asthma. And also for type 1 diabetes.
It wasn’t that these diseases were psychological.
It was because certain kinds of life experiences affect perceptions of threat at the cellular, nervous system and physiological levels.
Research studies have since been finding similar changes in epigenetics resulting from exposure to prenatal stress and stress in early life in humans (4)Tyrka, A. R., et al. (2016). “Methylation of the leukocyte glucocorticoid receptor gene promoter in adults: associations with early adversity and depressive, anxiety and substance-use disorders.” Transl Psychiatry 6(7): e848; this paper cites a number of studies showing that stress during early life alter our genes.
Life Events Influence Genes & Health
These effects were seen whether the dam was the biological mother or a foster mother who shared none of the same genes with the pups.
This means that the pups were calmer not because of the genes they inherited, but because their genes had been turned on or off after a particular experience.
In this particular set of studies, genes were being altered as a result of experiences that heightened offspring’s perceptions of threat.
What the research I discovered and have described in these first three blog posts is that a mother’s experiences affect her child’s long-term health. As well as his or her risk of developing a chronic illness.
The Effects of Experience Can Last a Lifetime
Meaney and Szyf also learned that the protective effects of greater calm and decreased sensitivity to stress in more nurtured pups lasted throughout their lifetimes.
This was a result of epigenetic changes that continued throughout the lives of the pups.
Maternal Experiences Affect Generations
Last but not least, the researchers also discovered that a mother rat’s behavior, including the degree to which she nurtured her pups, influences genetic expression not only in her offspring but also in her offspring’s pups.
These epigenetic changes were passed on for generations.
You can learn about Meaney and Szyf’s story and work in a great article in Discover magazine called “Grandma’s Experiences Leave a Mark on Your Genes.” There’s more on epigenetics and chronic illness in a Nova documentary called The Ghost In Your Genes. And you can read about the influence of maternal behaviors on health and epigenetics in the book Epigenetics: The Ultimate Mystery of Inheritance (formerly called How Environment Shapes our Genes) (5)see Chapters 4 & 6 for discussions about the effects of maternal behaviors.
It turns out that this research is now widely known in many fields of study even though it is rarely recognized in clinical medicine and when taking histories of people with chronic illnesses.
Genes Are Affected During Sensitive Periods
Meaney, Szyf and colleagues made another discovery that was relevant to Tony’s work with asthmatic kids.
They found that dams’ behaviors altered epigenetics in their rat pups during a very specific period of time. These changes took place during the first week after birth.
This is an example of nurture (behavior) interacting with nature (genes) to affect physiology. It’s referred to as a sensitive or critical period.
The Sensitive Period After Birth
Mothers who see and hold their babies in the first hours after birth tend to bond more easily to their newborns. They are more nurturing with their babies and hold them longer, keep them closer and gaze at them more. As with rat pups raised by more nurturing mothers, these babies are calmer than infants whose mothers express fewer bonding behaviors as a result of separation and interruptions to bonding (more details in Part 2 of the series).
These calmer babies also cry less. Smile more. Their mothers experience more ease when they first try to breastfeed. And they tend to breastfeed for longer periods (months rather than weeks). As Tony Madrid and an increasing number of other researchers have discovered (6)Moore, E. R., et al. (2012). “Early skin-to-skin contact for mothers and their healthy newborn infants.” Cochrane Database Syst Rev(5): CD003519 , these babies are also easier to soothe, grow faster, get sick less often and experience many other benefits.
A sensitive period that supports maternal-infant bonding and more nurturing behaviors appears to be greatest during the first hour or two after birth (7)Bystrova, K., et al. (2009). “Early contact versus separation: effects on mother-infant interaction one year later.” Birth 36(2): 97-109, (8)Klaus, M. H. and J. H. Kennell (1976). Maternal-infant bonding. St. Louis, Mosby, (9)Klaus, M. H., et al. (1972). “Maternal attachment. Importance of the first post-partum days.” N Engl J Med 286(9): 460-463.
*Although most research has focused on mothers, studies also show that fathers fall in love and bond more easily with their babies when they get to spend more time with them in the first hours and days after birth too (10)Klaus, M. H. and J. H. Kennell (1976). Maternal-infant bonding. St. Louis, Mosby.
Supporting Moms: Supporting Generations
What we’ve been learning about epigenetics provides a powerful explanation for psychologist Tony Madrid’s work in healing asthmatic kids by treating their mothers for experiences that interfered with bonding.
When women heal from difficult or painful events that happened during their pregnancies, at birth and in the first 2 years of their asthmatic children’s lives – it changes how they feel about their children, makes them more nurturing towards their kids, and heals their asthma. It does so by reinstating an underlying capacity mothers have to love their children that were interrupted by difficult events that happened outside of their control (11)Madrid, A., et al. (2012). “The Mother and Child Reunion Bonding Therapy: The Four Part Repair.” Journal of Prenatal and Perinatal Psychology and Health 26(3) .
An additional support for Madrid’s treatment effects came from Meaney and Szyf’s finding that epigenetic modifications in less nurtured mice could be reversed. Even in adulthood. And it was evidenced when their skittish behaviors resolved after treatment (12)Weaver, I. C., et al. (2006). “Maternal care effects on the hippocampal transcriptome and anxiety-mediated behaviors in the offspring that are reversible in adulthood.” Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 103(9): 3480-3485.
One of the fascinating and inspiring characteristics about how maternal behaviors influence epigenetics and perceptions of threat is that these epigenetically based changes can be reversed.
This research is pointing us in an entirely different direction regarding how to understand chronic diseases such as asthma.
This isn’t about bad mothers.
And it’s not just about the genes we inherit.
It’s about experiences that enable mothers to bond to their little ones when they are most vulnerable and have the greatest need for protection, safety, and care.
Experiences interact with genes during sensitive periods to meet the needs of the moment. This is how nature maximizes development and long-term adaptability as well as the chances of survival.
It’s also one way in which newborns develop subtle, cellular perceptions of threat from events occurring outside of their control. And even when they are not physically harmed or abused.
It occurs at the level of epigenetics.
These facts were nothing less than mind-bending when I discovered them.
They were also life-changing.
Do Perinatal Events Affect Risk for Other Chronic Illnesses?
Epigenetics provides a remarkably different context for understanding the role of prenatal and perinatal risk factors for asthma. And for type 1 diabetes as well.
I wondered again whether events occurring during early life imparted risk for other kinds of chronic illness.
I was curious not only about my asthma but about my experiences of increasing fatigue as well.
And I was intrigued about the characteristics of “perceptions of threat.”
Tony suggested that healing my own experiences from prenatal life, my birth and surrounding my mother’s losses in my first few years might help treat my asthma.
I put it on my to do list. And I looked forward to seeing if it could also help my symptoms of fatigue that were eventually diagnosed as chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS).
In recent years Dr. Martha Welch a former student and collaborator of Dr. Myron Hofer’s (mentioned in the first post of this series) has implemented a program to support mothers and their premature babies. She is conducting this in a research study at Columbia University. The intervention is called the Family Nurture Program and was presented on PBS in May 2017 in Parts 1 and 2. The primary goal is to decrease risk for emotional and developmental disabilities by teaching mothers to interact with their premature babies in ways that support and calm the nervous system even while they are still in the intensive care unit (a huge impediment to bonding and co-regulation).
This is a hugely encouraging and validating step for the importance of these early life events.
Another is that it turns out there are approaches for helping adults heal the long-standing effects of difficult prenatal and perinatal experiences – both their own and their parents’. Even though these events happened decades in the past. Even when they involve perceptions of threat so subtle that there is no conscious awareness of their existence. Or of why perceptions of threat or lack of safety might exist in the first place.
I’ve had some in-depth experiences using therapies for healing trauma and working with my symptoms. It has made a big difference in my life, including what appears to be a complete resolution of my asthma. And gradual improvement of my CFS. I’ll tell you more in a future post.
When I started researching this information I had questions that danced in my head like
sugar plums apple blossoms.
What if there weren’t uniquely different causes for each disease?
What if chronic diseases were caused by common types of risk factors?
I wondered what role perceptions of threat played in CFS and in other chronic illnesses, if any?
One area I focused on was to see whether similar perinatal risk factors existed for other chronic illnesses in addition to asthma and type 1 diabetes (there wasn’t much about CFS at the time). If so, I wondered whether the information I’d learned would fit those findings. Or help make sense of studies with conflicting findings.
More to come in future posts.
What You Can Do
Here’s a list of therapies for working with different types of trauma and subtle perceptions of threat. They are also helpful for working with chronic illness.
Learn more about risk factors for chronic illness from pregnancy, birth and infancy in the first post of this series describing research in type 1 diabetes and in the second post on asthma. The tools for working with asthma have not been tested with other chronic illnesses that I know of but are still appropriate for healing PTSD and other symptoms linked to difficult experiences from early in life (whether you are a parent who had difficult experiences during the birth of your child or an adult with a chronic illness and a history of adverse events in early life). Based on the research I’ve done over the past 15 years, work with clients introducing these perspectives, and deep explorations of these insights in my own journey with ME/CFS and asthma, these approaches are also helpful for working with many types of chronic illnesses, health problems, as well as emotional symptoms and mental illness.
Part 1.1: What if Chronic Illness is an Intelligent Process Gone Awry? Insights from type 1 diabetes
Leave a comment and let me know which of the risk factors or insights you resonate with the most.
Is it helpful to know about genes and how life experiences can influence our health?
Does it help make sense of your symptoms or chronic illness?
Does it offer relief? Or hope?
Let Me Know In a Comment
References [ + ]
|1.||↑||Madrid, A. (2010). The Mother and Child Reunion: Repairing the broken bond. Monte Rio, Lulu Press|
|2.||↑||Weaver, I. C., et al. (2004). “Epigenetic programming by maternal behavior.” Nat Neurosci 7(8): 847-854|
|3.||↑||Weaver, I. C., et al. (2004). “Epigenetic programming by maternal behavior.” Nat Neurosci 7(8): 847-854, p. 847|
|4.||↑||Tyrka, A. R., et al. (2016). “Methylation of the leukocyte glucocorticoid receptor gene promoter in adults: associations with early adversity and depressive, anxiety and substance-use disorders.” Transl Psychiatry 6(7): e848; this paper cites a number of studies showing that stress during early life alter our genes|
|5.||↑||see Chapters 4 & 6 for discussions about the effects of maternal behaviors|
|6.||↑||Moore, E. R., et al. (2012). “Early skin-to-skin contact for mothers and their healthy newborn infants.” Cochrane Database Syst Rev(5): CD003519|
|7.||↑||Bystrova, K., et al. (2009). “Early contact versus separation: effects on mother-infant interaction one year later.” Birth 36(2): 97-109|
|8, 10.||↑||Klaus, M. H. and J. H. Kennell (1976). Maternal-infant bonding. St. Louis, Mosby|
|9.||↑||Klaus, M. H., et al. (1972). “Maternal attachment. Importance of the first post-partum days.” N Engl J Med 286(9): 460-463|
|11.||↑||Madrid, A., et al. (2012). “The Mother and Child Reunion Bonding Therapy: The Four Part Repair.” Journal of Prenatal and Perinatal Psychology and Health 26(3)|
|12.||↑||Weaver, I. C., et al. (2006). “Maternal care effects on the hippocampal transcriptome and anxiety-mediated behaviors in the offspring that are reversible in adulthood.” Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 103(9): 3480-3485|